Need Help With Acid Reflux Issues? This Article Is For You

There isn’t much debate in regards to how much acid reflux sufferers deal with every day. Having said that, by being equipped with excellent advice, almost anyone can dramatically improve their symptoms. Continue ahead to learn about different ways you can cope with your acid reflux and knock it out once and for all.

Acid Reflux

It is time for you to quit smoking. Smoking causes and worsens acid reflux symptoms. This will result in more stomach acid and frequent occurrences of acid reflux. The esophageal sphincter is weakened as a result. This is why you should quit today.

TIP! Have beverages in between your meals instead of in the midst of them. This can significantly help you manage hunger pains, because you are likely thirsty rather than hungry.

Eliminate spicy foods from your diet to help alleviate acid reflux symptoms. These types of foods aggravate the build up of acid in the digestive tract, worsening your condition. By steering clear of these items, you can get some real relief.

Heart Attack

Sometimes, you will have extreme cases of acid reflux, even to the point where you think you are having a heart attack. Don’t ignore really bad chest pains. It could be a heart attack. Do not hesitate to call a doctor or an ambulance if you feel serious pain. Diagnosis of serious symptoms should never be done without the advice of a doctor.

TIP! Avoid consuming spicy foods like peppers and hot sauces. These foods can worsen acid buildup in the digestive tract and worsen your symptoms.

Don’t wear restrictive clothing. Tight belts, slimming underclothing, and restrictive waistbands are all suspect. Restrictive clothing can put your stomach under additional pressure. Heartburn symptoms will soon be on their way. Instead, wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothes that are not too tight on your stomach.

One of the major causes of heart burn is alcohol. It should be avoided. Alcohol causes acid build up in your stomach and it may deteriorate the lining in your stomach, which can cause acid reflux. Refrain from drinking with friends, especially if you have suffered from reflux when drinking in the past.

There are specific foods that are very likely to cause acid reflux for virtually anyone who suffers from this condition. Therefore, you need to moderate your consumption of them in order to relieve your symptoms. Try avoiding spicy foods, tomatoes, carbonated beverages, alcohol, caffeine, milk, acidic fruits juices, and greasy fast food.

TIP! Our acid reflux can be triggered by specific foods. Things such as fried items, caffeinated drinks, alcohol and chocolate are common things known to cause reflux.

Don’t lie down after eating. When you recline, your digestion slows down. Remaining in a seated position allows you to bypass the unpleasant effects of acid reflux.

Acid Reflux

Maintain your ideal weight, or lose weight if needed. Extra weight, particularly around the belly, boosts your chances of having problems with acid reflux. That’s because extra abdominal fat increases pressure on your stomach, which increases the odds that reflux will occur. Losing 10% of your body weight can help with many health problems, including acid reflux.

TIP! Watch the types of foods you eat before a reflux episode. There are probably foods that trigger acid reflux every time.

It is common for pregnant women to experience acid reflux because their baby is pressing down on their stomach. If this applies with you, speak with your doctor for solutions.

Try to lose a few pounds each week. Extra weight isn’t good for anyone who suffers from reflux. Carrying around this extra weight can make your acid reflux much worse. This is what causes discomfort and harm to your esophageal liner. Lose weight by following a healthy diet and practicing a healthy lifestyle.

Don’t drink alcohol. Alcohol helps to produce too much stomach acid. Be sure to limit alcohol consumption to two or fewer drinks per day. Choose your drink with care to avoid acid reflux.

TIP! There are certain foods that tend to cause symptoms in people that suffer from acid reflux. Find out what these triggers are for you and reduce your consumption.

Acid Reflux

The acidity of the food you eat really doesn’t affect the pH level. Foods you may think of as acidic may actually be quite alkaline once digested. If you have acid reflux, this makes it harder to know what is safe to eat. You must know more about pH when dealing with your acid reflux.

Don’t eat highly fatty foods. Don’t eat foods that are fried or from fast-food restaurants. You can read the ingredient labels of foods that you are interested in to check the fat level.

TIP! Shed some pounds. Excess weight, especially when it is located around your middle, can increase the frequency with which you suffer from acid reflux.

Make sure you do not eat during the three hours prior to getting into bed. For instance, if you hit the sack at 11, you should be eating your last meal before 8. This is because lying down with a stomach full of food places additional pressure on your LES muscle. When you do that, you’ll have acid reflux flare ups.

Acid Reflux

Lose some weight if you have extra pounds. Being overweight can really contribute to your acid reflux symptoms. It places unneeded pressure on the stomach, which leads to heartburn. Therefore, lose some weight, even just a few pounds, in order to relieve your acid reflux.

TIP! Moderate exercise can help acid reflux. Moderate is the key here.

You might consider surgery with your doctor if the acid reflux symptoms are getting worse. A procedure that can really help this condition is called fundoplication. What happens is the doctor can insert a new valve which can lessen how much acid makes it into the esophagus. This surgery may help eliminate your acid reflux.

Anyone that suffers from acid reflux can definitely describe the pain and irritation. Fortunately, it is not necessary to suffer silently, since there are good solutions to address the condition. Remember the advice so that you can use it yourself and maybe help someone else as well.

Great Solutions For Acid Reflux That Anyone Can Follow

Past sufferers of acid reflux know how annoying and painful it can be. You feel discomfort and cannot live normally. There are several techniques and lifestyle changes to combat acid reflux. Read on to find out more.

You will not have to worry about GRED as much if you can reach a healthy weight. When you are overweight, the esophageal sphincter sometimes opens under the pressure of the excess weight. Not only will you feel healthier as you lose weight, you will be less likely to suffer from acid reflux symptoms.

To reduce acid reflux symptoms, try avoiding spicy foods like peppers and hot sauce. They can encourage your body to produce more acid, increasing your symptoms. By avoiding them, you will feel much better.

TIP! Eat dinner a minimum of three hours before bedtime. You need to stay upright for at least two hours to allow your food to properly digest.

Stress can be a factor in your condition. During stressful times, stomach acid production increases significantly, which leads to reflux. When you finish a meal, exercise. Watch television, read a book or even meditate to relieve your stress.

Avoid overly restrictive clothing. Belts, underwear, pantyhose and skinny jeans are some typical culprits. Wearing clothes that are too tight can put a lot of pressure on your abdomen. This can lead to heartburn and reflux symptoms. Wear comfortable clothes, which help give your stomach breathing room.

If you are active, you may notice your acid reflux flares up after strenuous activities. Enjoy a tall glass of water. Water fulfills your need for hydration. This will also aid in the digestion of your food. Water can enhance your digestion and minimize the acid produced in your stomach.

TIP! When you are at a healthy weight, it is less likely that you will suffer from GERD. When extra pounds press down on your abdomen, it causes your esophageal sphincter to relax.

Particular foods can lead to acid reflux. Limit how many of these items you consume. Avoid spicy foods, acidic foods and fatty foods.

Avoid reclining after eating. When you lay down, your digestive tract can sometimes have difficulty with the food you have consumed. This upright position can help the flow of liquids in your body.

Acid Reflux

TIP! Elevating the head of your bed can work wonders to sooth nighttime acid reflux. This can also be accomplished with bricks, books or wood.

Moderate physical activity may assist with acid reflux. Moderation is key. Exercising intensely after a meal can cause acid reflux, but working out at a gentler pace could aid your digestion. Staying upright ensures gravity does its job. Even a moderate exercise program offers great benefits to the body and helps with weight loss. Weight loss and less stress on the stomach helps with acid reflux.

Slippery elm lozenge are a good natural remedy to try. The active ingredient in the lozenge provides a protective coating for your digestive tract. Slippery elm bark can also help with your coughing. You should be able to find this product at your local health food store.

Keep your acid reflux at bay by limiting your alcohol intake. Alcohol can cause more acid to be produced in your stomach. If you need to drink alcohol on occasion, limit yourself to only a couple of glasses at the most; however, you really should aim to consume alcohol-free beverages when you can.

TIP! Exercise can be difficult after you eat if you have acid reflux. It could force food in the stomach to travel upwards, back to the esophagus.

Are you aware that how likely a food is to create acid in the stomach doesn’t have much correlation with the pH level? Acidic foods like lemons have higher alkaline properties after they’ve been digested. This can be confusing to the average person. Check into food pH stats so that you can avoid foods that might trigger reflux.

Acid Reflux

Never diagnose yourself. If you think you might have acid reflux disease, see a doctor and find out for sure. A lot of other conditions, such as ulcers and types of heart disorders, resemble the effects of acid reflux. Your physician can run tests to see if you do have acid reflux.

TIP! Sometimes people that have acid reflux attacks mistakenly believe they are having a cardiac event. However, you should never ignore chest pain.

Excessive weight can make acid reflux worse, so you should maintain a reasonable weight. Being overweight can cause acid reflux. This causes reflux issues because of the undue pressure on the stomach. Losing just a little weight can be helpful.

Try to find the root of your acid reflux issue when pregnant. It could be a simple thing like drinking water late in the evening causing your pain. Once you find the root of your acid reflux, you can keep it from recurring.

If you’ve heartburn at night, you should consider how you’ve been sleeping. Instead of laying on your right side, it is best to snooze on the left. Your stomach acids should stay inside your stomach if you adopt this position.

TIP! Get in shape to reduce acid reflux. Obesity is one major cause of acid reflux occurring.

To help avoid nightly acid reflux attacks, do not eat before bedtime. Eating activates your digestive system. As a result, stomach acids are produced by your stomach in order to digest this food. This can help to moderate the acid that your stomach produces.

Acid Reflux

You should not let acid reflux make you feel miserable. With a bit of basic information and work, it is possible to make your acid reflux a thing of the past. Take the helpful advice included above and apply it to your life.

TIP! Try and do some sort of activity in which you are upright, like walking. This type of exercise helps to reduce your acid reflux in several ways.

In An Acid Reflux Mess? Clean It Up With These Tips

Do you consider acid reflux your worst enemy? Does it cause you to constantly lose sleep? Are you suffering because of the acid reflux eating at your esophagus? The great news is that there is hope for controlling acid reflux, so continue reading to learn more about gaining your life back.

The way you eat food can cause acid reflux. Lots of people eat too much food, and they eat it really fast. This is an improper way to eat and only serves to make things worse in the future. Instead, you should eat only until you are satisfied, not full. You should also make a conscious effort to eat more slowly. Chew each bite slowly and savor the flavor.

If you are a healthy weight, you are less likely to suffer from acid reflux. The sphincter starts to relax more when fat pushes down on the stomach. Losing weight will tighten your sphincter, making the acid stay where it needs to stay.

TIP! Eating certain foods can increase the symptoms of acid reflux. Eating too quickly or too much can directly cause acid reflux.

If you smoke, the time to quit is now. Smoking can actually make your acid reflux much worse. It also slows digestion and increases acid production in the stomach while slowing down the production of saliva. It causes the esophageal sphincter to weaken. Therefore, stop smoking immediately to help your condition.

Acid Reflux

Acid reflux can also be caused by stress. When you are overly stressed out, more acid is produced in the stomach, causing acid reflux. Try to do something relaxing after each meal. Meditate, do some yoga, go for a walk or read a book.

TIP! Sometimes, pregnant women develop acid reflux during gestation. When the baby matures in your body, there will be more acid that develops.

Some foods tend to cause acid reflux more than others. Things such as fried items, caffeinated drinks, alcohol and chocolate are common things known to cause reflux. Additionally, citrus fruit, tomatoes and other foods with a high level of acidity can cause problems. Every person has their own list, so you have to determine what most bothers you at mealtime. To be safe, avoid all these.

Keep track of the foods you eat so you know what causes your acid reflux issues. There are certain trigger foods for anyone who has acid reflux. When you figure out what causes the problem to occur, you will know what foods to avoid, especially at night when it can get worse.

Reflux sometimes feels like a heart attack. Don’t ignore chest pain! They can be a sign of heart failure. Get in touch with your physician and follow his or her instructions. Don’t let yourself die in denial!

TIP! Eliminate spicy foods from your diet to help alleviate acid reflux symptoms. Spicy foods can cause your stomach to produce more acid.

Acid Reflux

Lose weight to help prevent and lessen the effects of acid reflux. Obesity is a major cause of acid reflux. By shedding one-tenth of your total body weight, you may see significant reductions in the occurrence of reflux. Weight loss ought to be achieved through small meals, not through crash diets.

Try not to drink too much alcohol if you suffer from acid reflux. Alcohol can cause acid reflux to worsen. If you must drink alcohol, try drinking at most a couple of glasses and look for alcohol or wine that doesn’t worsen your symptoms of acid reflux.

TIP! To thicken the mucuous lining of the stomach, try slippery elm. This thickening process protects your stomach lining from all the acid it contains.

Stay calm. Stress can increase your stomach acids, resulting in heartburn. When your meal is finished, relax by doing some deep breathing or meditation. Do not lay down right after you eat, stay upright.

If you have been suffering from acid reflux for a long time, your doctor may recommend surgery. Fundoplication can create a new valve which functions correctly. This surgery does have side effects and complications, so discuss it thoroughly with your doctor.

One way to cut down on reflux is to avoid drinking while eating. Drinking liquids with a meal will increase the volume of food in your stomach. When this happens, pressure is applied to the bottom of the esophagus’ sphincter, increasing reflux. Instead, consume water at other times of the day.

TIP! When you have an acid reflux flareup, try to remember what you ate just prior to that. People that suffer from acid reflux must identify their trigger foods.

Acid Reflux

Smokers with acid reflux must stop smoking. Obviously, quitting smoking has numerous health benefits, but it also assists in relieving acid reflux. Smoking slows down digestion and increases acid in your stomach. Smoking can also decrease saliva production and that will slow down digestion. If you smoke, try not to smoke at least a couple of hours after you eat to get the best results.

Reduce the effects of nighttime acid reflux by avoiding eating at least three hours before bedtime. Eating activates the digestive tract. At this time, the stomach will start making acid in order to process food. Don’t eat close to bedtime. This will help you avoid having excess acids in your stomach when you lie down.

TIP! If you are a smoker and suffer from acid reflux, you need to quit. Nicotine sparks stomach acid production, causing a rise in acid reflux flares.

Exercise on a regular basis. Exercise provides your body with numerous benefits. A reduction in acid reflux symptoms is one great benefit. Regular exercise can regulate the digestive process. If you experience reflux after exercising, make sure you aren’t overdoing it.

Avoid Acid Reflux

Avoid acid reflux attacks by watching what beverages you drink and how much of them you drink. It has been found that alcohol, carbonated soft drinks, and beverages that are high in caffeine can lead to problems with acid reflux. Instead, go with water as that is the best bet to avoid acid reflux.

TIP! Consider eliminating alcohol from your diet. Your stomach lining deteriorates and acid builds up when you consume alcohol, and this worsens your acid reflux.

If you are very stressful person you should seek out ways to control the stress. Stress can lead to activities such as smoking which can make your acid reflux worse. Thus, lower your stress, and you can limit your acid reflux problems.

If you’re having a bout of acid reflux, change into loose clothing. Clothes that are too tight add pressure to the stomach area that is not needed and can make the acid reflux much worse. Therefore, when pain begins to increase, prepare yourself to get into comfortable clothes. To prevent problems with a large meal, put your loose clothing on before you eat.

Are you aware of how to end your acid reflux suffering? Are you aware of how to achieve a restful night of sleep? Isn’t it time to allow your esophagus to heal? By using these tips, you can begin feeling better soon; begin now!

TIP! Do not lie down immediately after you have eaten. When you recline, your digestion slows down.

Simple Steps To Help You Better Understand Acid Reflux

Does the thought of eating an orange make you cringe? Or the idea of lying down right after a meal? Acid reflux symptoms include discomfort and pain after consuming high-acid and high-fat foods. You may have this. Continue reading to learn excellent tips on how to permanently relieve your acid reflux symptoms.

If you are a smoker, it is high-time to throw out the cigarettes once and for all. Smoking can actually make your acid reflux much worse. This is because smoking slows digestion and increases stomach acid, while reducing saliva production. This also weakens the sphincter of your esophagus. So stop smoking now.

Sometimes reflux symptoms are so painful you may feel like you are experiencing a heart attack. However, you should never ignore chest pain. It is possible your chest pain is a heart attack. Get in touch with your physician and follow his or her instructions. A misdiagnosis could lead to serious issues.

TIP! Try drinking in between meals instead of during them. This will help with hunger pangs since you’re more likely to experience thirst than hunger.

Acid Reflux

Reduce acid reflux by attaining and maintaining a proper weight. One common reason for acid reflux is being overweight. Losing just 10 percent of how much you weigh can reduce the occurrence of acid reflux. Weight loss should be done by eating smaller meals, not by crash dieting.

You should reduce your stress as much as possible. Stress increases stomach acid which increases inflammation and heartburn. Figure out what is stressing you out and get it out of your life.

TIP! To reduce acid reflux symptoms, try avoiding spicy foods like peppers and hot sauce. These kinds of food increase the amount of acid found in the digestive tract and make the situation worse.

Make sure you’re eating your food as slow as you can. Rather than clearing your plate, eat slowly until you are just about satiated. Relax, sit upright at a table and chew your food thoroughly. If you consume your food quickly or you eat too much, acid reflux can be exacerbated. A trick that may help you is to set down your fork between bites.

Participate in gentle, upright exercise such as cycling or walking. Walking, for example, can help improve symptoms in several ways. Digestion is also improved significantly. Also, it can facilitate weight loss, which also improves acid reflux symptoms. Even though it is essential to get regular exercise, you don’t want to be too hardcore about it, as this can indeed make your acid reflux worse, not better.

Acid Reflux

TIP! Some foods may trigger acid reflux. Caffeine beverages, chocolate, fried items and alcohol can all be acid reflux triggers.

You should drink between meals if you are dealing with acid reflux. Drinking and eating simultaneously will put more pressure on your esophagus. As a result, stomach acid can rise into your esophagus, damaging the lining and causing acid reflux.

Gluten is a potent acid reflux trigger food for many folks. Anyone who deals with acid reflux ought to consider cutting barley, wheat and oat intake. Replace these trigger foods with millet or quinoa.

Foods that include tomato, such as pizza or spaghetti, are not a good option if you are dealing with acid reflux. When cooking with tomato bases, adding sugar can help reduce acidity. You will find that it won’t bother your symptoms as much and only adds a slight touch of sweetness to the sauce.

TIP! If you are dealing with acid reflex, you definitely do not want to exercise right after you eat. Food in the stomach may be forced into the esophagus when the lower abdominal muscles are contracting during an exercise routine.

One of the best ways to avoid the discomfort of acid reflux is to eat your meals slowly and pause every few bites to allow you stomach to digest properly. Savor each bite, as it will help with digestion. It’s also a good idea to push your plate away once you are full.

What is triggering your pregnancy-induced acid reflux? It could be a simple thing like drinking water late in the evening causing your pain. If you can figure out the cause, you can take care of it.

Before sleeping, don’t eat big meals. Eat at least three hours in advance if you want to sleep. The extra acids that are caused by the food breaking down may cause heartburn if you lie down on a full tummy.

TIP! Raise up your bed to where your top half is higher up. Raise your bed up for your top half using items like heavy books or bed risers.

Acid Reflux

See your doctor right away if you have bloody stool or vomit. This may be a more serious condition than acid reflux. If you actually have something apart from acid reflux, it may be that it can be treated quickly and easily.

Now you’re aware of what to avoid eating and doing. As a result, you are aware of what you should change in order to prevent symptoms. Living will be easier now that you know so much. Get down to the business of changing your life today.

TIP! Make sure you’re eating your food as slow as you can. Rather than clearing your plate, eat slowly until you are just about satiated.

Acid Reflux Versus You: What You Need To Know To Win

Not a single person is exempt from the possibility of acid reflux. Roughly one-third of all Americans deal with it. It’s a shock that very few people know how to deal with it when it’s so prevalent in our society. You can treat your acid reflux by using the tips in this article.

Do not drink when you are eating. Instead, drink during the times between meals. It’s more likely that you are thirsty rather than hungry, and this will settle your hunger pangs. Drinking liquids outside of mealtimes won’t bloat your stomach, so acid won’t be as easily transported back to your esophagus.

Acid Reflux

TIP! You are much less likely to have acid reflux if you are at your ideal weight. If you are overweight, your sphincter will allow acid into your esophagus.

Foods rich in fat are not good for you if you suffer from acid reflux. The chemicals released from breaking down all that fat will cause your esophageal sphincter to relax. They also promote weight gain, which can exacerbate acid reflux. The healthier you eat, the healthier you are!

The slippery elm supplement can aid your acid reflux symptoms by helping to thicken the mucuous membranes in your stomach. It does this by helping to protect your stomach against acidity. Taking a tablespoon or two with a cup of water either after eating or before bed can give you relief.

Lose weight to help prevent and lessen the effects of acid reflux. Acid reflux is very common among obese and overweight people. Even just losing a very small percentage of weight can make dramatic improvements in your acid reflux symptoms. You can use smaller meals to lose weight, because crash dieting is not the answer.

TIP! The fattier the food, the worse it is for those with acid reflux. Fatty foods encourage acids to flow in the wrong direction.

There are particular foods that are well-known acid reflux triggers. Limit how many of these items you consume. Watch how much coffee, tomatoes, alcohol, milk and spicy foods that you consume.

Try to limit the triggers of stress in your life stemming from school, relationships or personal issues. This can be a major cause of symptom exacerbation, leading to acid production and pain. Learn to manage your stress, or get rid of the ones you can.

Acid Reflux

TIP! Put a wedge beneath your mattress to boost your head and keep acid down. You can also use books, wood, or anything else which puts the mattress up at an angle to the base of the bed.

Regular, moderate exercise helps reduce acid reflux attacks by improving your health. Moderation is key to making this work. While vigorous exercise can aggravate acid reflux, more moderate activity can provide significant relief. Staying upright ensures gravity does its job. Besides, being more active will help you get in shape and reduce the pressure on your stomach.

Pregnancy can cause acid reflux due to the baby pushing the stomach. Speak with your doctor to see if there are options to combat your issue.

Do you realize that a food’s pH level has no impact on its ability to form acid in your stomach? Lemons, which many think are acidic, have a lot of alkaline after they are consumed. This can cause issues if you are dealing with acid reflux. Know about the pH levels of the foods you like.

TIP! Stress can be a factor in your condition. High stress leads to higher acid production.

High fat foods should be avoided. What this means is that you definitely need to avoid or at least severely cut down on those fatty fried foods, red meat and fast foods. You can find the fat content of foods by reading the labels. Label reading is a developed skill and easy once you learn the basics.

Were you aware that the forming tendency of acid or the alkaline in a food doesn’t really have anything to do with a food’s pH level? While a lemon starts off acidic, for example, after digestion they become alkaline. This can seem rather confusing when you’re prone to acid reflux. Find out more about the actual pH of the foods you usually eat to figure out which ones you should stay away from.

Acid Reflux Disease

TIP! It is always a good idea to keep upright after eating a meal for at least a couple hours. By lying down, acid can rise due to the fact that gravity is working against it.

If you think you have acid reflux disease, ask your doctor for a second opinion. If you have the symptoms, like stomach discomfort and regurgitation, you should visit your doctor. There are many other conditions, including ulcers and heart disorders, that have the same symptoms as acid reflux disease. Your doctor may wish to run a battery of tests to make a firm diagnosis.

Slim down if you are overweight. Being overweight can cause acid reflux. Your weight could put some pressure on your digestive track and cause acid reflux. Just losing a couple of pounds can be of help.

Try to find the root of your acid reflux issue when pregnant. It could be something silly like drinking some water after a certain time. If you can find what is the common cause, you can help keep it at bay.

TIP! Chew a stick of gum, preferrably cinnamon, after your meal. As you chew the gum, you will begin to produce more saliva.

Esophageal Sphincter

Limit your drinks during meals. Beverages are absorbed into your food causing your stomach to be overly full. A full stomach means more pressure than your esophageal sphincter can handle. The esophageal sphincter helps keep food and stomach acids out of the esophagus.

Don’t eat any food less than three hours before you go to bed. Eating causes an activation of the digestive tract. This acid is produced by the stomach. You can reduce stomach acids by refraining from eating before bed.

TIP! When you have acid reflux, you can benefit greatly from raising the top of your bed up. Raise your bed up for your top half using items like heavy books or bed risers.

Exercise can help. Regular exercise can really help to reduce your acid reflux symptoms. It keeps your whole body healthy, including your digestive organs. When you exercise too hard, you may increase your symptoms, so stay at a moderate level.

Acid Reflux

If you are very stressful person you should seek out ways to control the stress. Stress leads to activities that cause to acid reflux. Among them are poor eating habits, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking. When you reduce stress levels you will reduce acid reflux.

TIP! Intense periods of physical activity may be the cause of your acid reflux. Increase your intake of water.

So many people suffer from acid reflux in America. If you are among them, be proactive and do what is necessary to fight the condition. Use what was given here and take the pain away.